Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
articles:context_of_the_organization [2019/08/29 20:00]
rrandall [Context of the Organization... and "Interested Parties"]
articles:context_of_the_organization [2020/03/19 21:12] (current)
rrandall [Context of the Organization... and "Interested Parties"]
Line 1: Line 1:
 ====== Context of the Organization... and "​Interested Parties"​ ====== ====== Context of the Organization... and "​Interested Parties"​ ======
  
-While poorly described in ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:2016, the "​Context of the Organization"​... and "​Interested Parties"​ actually involve cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the idea that a person'​s beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person'​s own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.+While poorly described in ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:2016, the "​Context of the Organization"​... and "​Interested Parties"​ actually involve ​//cultural relativism//. Cultural relativism is the idea that a person'​s beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person'​s own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
  
-This means that interpretation of the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:2016 changes when crossing cultural boundaries. ​Orstated another way, interpretation of the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:​2016 ​is "country ​dependent"​.+This means that interpretation of the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:2016 changes when crossing cultural boundaries. ​And since culture is most often rooted in socio-political beliefseconomy, laws, regulations,​ etc., interpretation of the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:​2016 ​are often "nation ​dependent"​. ​(See [[articles:​re-writing_iso_9001_through_interpretation|Re-writing ISO 9001:​2015... through Interpretation]])
  
-Recognizing that some of the requirements contained in ISO 9001:​2015 ​& AS 9100:2016 involve socio-politically driven requirementsone can easily understand how this severely limits the value of ISO 9001:​2015 ​AS 9100:2016+Understanding the influence ​of //cultural relativism//​ on the authors helps explain ​ISO 9001:​2015, ​sec. 4.1, Notes 2 3.
  
-For example, when reading ​ISO 9001:​2015 ​& AS 9100:2016, sec. 4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties”the interpretation varies depending upon whether ​the country is communistsocialist (i.e.closed ​or restricted economies) or a free society with a free market economy.+<​blockquote>​**ISO 9001:2015, sec. 4.1** \\ 
 +NOTE 2 Understanding the external context can be facilitated by considering issues arising from legal, technological,​ competitive,​ market, __cultural, social ​and economic environments__, whether ​__internationalnationalregional ​or local__. \\ 
 +NOTE 3 Understanding the internal context can be facilitated by considering issues related to __values, culture__, knowledge and performance of the organization\\ 
 +</​blockquote>​
  
-This accounts for the following definition being completely incongruent with businesses operating in a free society with a free-market economy ​(the “Example” having been added by TC 176).+For example, when reading ISO 9001:2015 & AS 9100:2016, sec. 4.2 “//​Understanding ​the needs and expectations of interested parties//​”,​ the interpretation varies depending upon whether the country is communist, socialist (i.e., closed or restricted economies) or a free society with a free market economy.
  
-----+This accounts for the following definition being completely incongruent with businesses operating in a free society with a free-market economy (the “Example” immediately below the definition was added by TC 176 to the definition provided in "​ISO/​IEC Directives, Part 1, Consolidated ISO Supplement ​Procedures specific to ISO" (Fifth edition, 2014), Annex SL).
  
-//ISO 9000:2015, sec. 3.2.3: \\+<​blockquote>​**ISO 9000:2015, sec. 3.2.3:** \\
 interested party / stakeholder \\ interested party / stakeholder \\
 person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity \\ person or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity \\
 \\ \\
-EXAMPLE Customers, owners, **people in an organization,​ providers, bankers**, regulators, **unions**, partners or **society** that can include **competitors or opposing pressure groups**.//​ +EXAMPLE Customers, owners, **people in an organization,​ providers, bankers**, regulators, **unions**, partners or **society** that can include **competitors or opposing pressure groups**. ​\\ 
-\\ +</blockquote>​ 
-----+ 
 +In China, where more than a third of all ISO 9001:2015 certifications have been issued, the “//Context of the Organization//​” and its relationship with “//​Interested Parties / Stakeholders//​” has a very different meaning than in the USA! 
 + 
 +{{ :​articles:​china-i_m_a_stakeholder.jpg?​nolink |}} 
 + 
 +Fortunately,​ ISO 9001:2015, sec. 4.2b, effectively re-defines an “//​interested party//” through __limiting__ them to a “party” invoking **quality-related requirements**,​ as shown below: \\ 
  
-Fortunately,​ ISO 9001:2015, sec. 4.2beffectively re-defines an “interested ​party” (relevant to the quality management system) as a “party” invoking ​**quality-related ​requirements**. \\+//4.2 Understanding the Needs and Expectations of Interested Parties \\ 
 +Due to their effect or potential effect on the organization’s ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirementsthe organization shall determine: \\ 
 +a. the interested ​parties that are **relevant to the quality management system**; \\ 
 +b. the **requirements of these interested parties** that are **relevant to the quality ​management system**. \\ 
 +The organization shall monitor and review information about these interested parties and their **relevant ​requirements**.// \\
 \\ \\
-Also, ISO 9001:2015, Annex A.3 states: \\+ISO 9001:2015, Annex A.3 further clarifies this limitation stating: \\
 “//There is no requirement in this International Standard for the organization to consider interested parties where it has decided that those parties are not relevant to its quality management system. It is for the organization to decide if a particular requirement of a relevant interested party is relevant to its quality management system.//​”\\ “//There is no requirement in this International Standard for the organization to consider interested parties where it has decided that those parties are not relevant to its quality management system. It is for the organization to decide if a particular requirement of a relevant interested party is relevant to its quality management system.//​”\\
 \\ \\
-ISO 9001:2015, Annex A.3 makes this "//​requirement//"​ extremely simple for an organization to comply with... because ​whatever the organization decides, that'​s ​"what" ​is required.+Consequently, ​ISO 9001:2015, Annex A.3 makes this "//​requirement//"​ extremely simple for an organization to comply with... because ​it empowers __the organization__ to decide which requirements from an "//​interested party//" ​are applicable to its quality management system\\
 \\ \\
 +Some U.S. companies have identified their own //​employees//​ and/or //​suppliers//​ as "​interested parties"​! But do those employees and/or suppliers actually invoke any "​quality-related requirements"​ on the business? While the answer is generally no, as per ISO 9001:2015, Annex A.3, the final determination is left to the organization. \\
 +\\
 +An example of valid "//​Interested Parties//"​ for a company visiting ports (e.g., performing inspections of, or transferring goods to/from, barges, vessels, shore tanks, etc.) might include:
 +
 +^  Interested Party  ^  Requirement(s) ​ ^
 +|  Customers ​        | Defined on a “case-by-case” basis in documented “nominations” received via e-mail, “contracts” and/or "​Purchase Orders"​. |
 +|  Transportation Security Administration (TSA)  | Defined in the [[https://​www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​PLAW-107publ295/​pdf/​PLAW-107publ295.pdf|"​Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002" (PUBLIC LAW 107–295—NOV. 25, 2002)]]. The primary applicable, relevant requirement is for Inspectors to possess a “[[https://​www.tsa.gov/​for-industry/​twic |Transportation Worker Identification Credential]]”,​ also known as TWIC® card, in order to gain entry to port facilities. ​ |
 +|  Port Facilities ​ | Some Ports communicate their “Rules” via e-mail. Other Ports communicate their rules on an “as-needed” or “case-by-case” basis. |
 +|  Vessel owners/​captains | Vessel rules/​requirements are typically communicated verbally by the vessel crew on a “case-by-case” basis. |
 +|  Barge owners/​captains | Barge rules/​requirements are communicated by the fleet. Each fleet has different rules - that are typically communicated “as-needed”. |
 ===== Additional AS 9100:2016 (Rev. D) Requirement ===== ===== Additional AS 9100:2016 (Rev. D) Requirement =====
  
-Unlike ISO 9001:2015, AS 9100:2016 (Rev. D) requires "the organization"​ to document a general description"​ of the interested parties. \\+Unlike ISO 9001:​2015 ​(which __does not__ require a document identifying "​interested parties"​), AS 9100:2016 (Rev. D) requires "the organization"​ to document a "general description"​ of the interested parties. \\
  
-An example of "​Interested Parties"​ for a defense contractor might include:+AS 9100:2016, sec. 4.4.2 states: \\ 
 +//The organization shall establish and maintain documented information that includes: \\ 
 +− a general description of relevant interested parties (see 4.2 a);// 
 + 
 + 
 +This requirement is typically interpreted as the "//​general description//"​ consisting of the identity of the "//​interested party//"​ and their requirements (Ref. AS 9100:2016, sec. 4.2). 
 + 
 +An example of "//Interested Parties//" for a defense contractor might include:
  
 ^  Interested Party  ^  Requirement(s) ​ ^ ^  Interested Party  ^  Requirement(s) ​ ^
 |  Customers ​        | Defined on a “case-by-case” basis in documented “contracts” and/or "​Purchase Orders"​. ​ | |  Customers ​        | Defined on a “case-by-case” basis in documented “contracts” and/or "​Purchase Orders"​. ​ |
-|  U.S. Department of State  | Defined in the [[https://​www.law.cornell.edu/​cfr/​text/​22/​chapter-I/​subchapter-M|“International Traffic in Arms Regulations” (22 CFR SubChapter ​M, Parts 120-130)]], when applicable. |+|  U.S. Department of State  | Defined in the [[https://​www.law.cornell.edu/​cfr/​text/​22/​chapter-I/​subchapter-M|“International Traffic in Arms Regulations” (22 CFR Subchapter ​M, Parts 120-130)]], when applicable. |
 |  U.S. Department of Defense ​ | Defined in the “Federal Acquisition Regulations” (FARs) & “Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations” (DFARs), when applicable. | |  U.S. Department of Defense ​ | Defined in the “Federal Acquisition Regulations” (FARs) & “Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations” (DFARs), when applicable. |
 \\ \\
-\\ 
-An example of "​Interested Parties"​ for a company visiting ports (e.g., performing inspections of, or transferring goods to/from, barges, vessels, shore tanks, etc.) might include: 
  
-^  Interested Party  ^  Requirement(s) ​ ^ 
-|  Customers ​        | Defined on a “case-by-case” basis in documented “nominations” received via e-mail, “contracts” and/or "​Purchase Orders"​. | 
-|  Transportation Security Administration (TSA)  | Defined in the [[https://​www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​PLAW-107publ295/​pdf/​PLAW-107publ295.pdf|"​Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002" (PUBLIC LAW 107–295—NOV. 25, 2002)]]. The primary applicable, relevant requirement is for Inspectors to possess a “[[https://​www.tsa.gov/​for-industry/​twic |Transportation Worker Identification Credential]]”,​ also known as TWIC® card, in order to gain entry to port facilities. ​ | 
-|  Port Facilities ​ | Some Ports communicate their “Rules” via e-mail. Other Ports communicate their rules on an “as-needed” or “case-by-case” basis. | 
-|  Vessel owners / captains ​ | Vessel rules / requirements are typically communicated verbally by the vessel crew on a “case-by-case” basis. | 
-|  Barge owners / captains ​ | Barge rules / requirements are communicated by the fleet. Each fleet has different rules - that are typically communicated “as-needed”. | 
-\\ 
-\\